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The Whanaungatanga Model of Care

Shirley Lyford, RN, BN, MCNA(NZ), Cardiac Liaison Nurse, Te Puna Hauora, Kaupapa Maori Services, Tauranga Hospital

Patricia Cook, RN, BN, Nurse Manager, Te Puna Hauora Kaupapa Nursing Service, Tauranga Hospital

Lyford, S., & Cook, P. (2004). The whanaungatanga model of care. Nursing Praxis in New Zealand, 21(2), 26-36.

Abstract
The 1988 Royal Commission on Social Policy recommended that the Treaty of Waitangi (‘the Treaty’), be “enshrined” within social policy. Subsequently health care organisations have integrated the Treaty principles as defined by the Royal Commission (1988) - partnership, protection and participation - into the philosophies underpinning their services. Through the Treaty partnership at Tauranga Hospital a unique secondary health service evolved, one that is delivered by Maori for Maori1. The Kaupapa nursing service at Te Puna Hauora implements an indigenous health model, the Whanaungatanga Model of Care, to guide nursing practice. This paper describes the Kaupapa Service and the model it uses. It also explores the benefits and challenges associated with implementing such a model.

Key Words: Whanaungatanga, Maori health, Te Whare Tapa Wha, Indigenous health model.

Introduction
The 1988 Royal Commission on Social Policy recommended the Treaty of Waitangi be enshrined within social policy. Subsequently health care organisations have integrated the Treaty principles as defined by the Royal Commission (1988) - partnership, protection and participation - into the philosophies that underpin their service. Tauranga Hospital is a publicly funded secondary health service, located in the Western Bay of Plenty in the North Island of New Zealand. A unique partnership with Maori has evolved to address Maori health development. The partnership is between tangata whenua and the Bay of Plenty District Health Board, which is responsible for the planning and delivery of health services within the region. As a result of this partnership, the Te Puna Hauora Kaupapa Maori Service was developed.

Prior to discussing the Whanaungatanga Model of Care which has been adopted by the Te Puna Hauora Kaupapa Maori service, and its application in the delivery of nursing services, the background socio-political environment will be outlined and a description of services will be provided. This paper will establish the benefits and challenges involved in the Te Puna Hauora Kaupapa Maori service (also known as the Kaupapa Service). Within this  context the definition of Kaupapa is service for Maori, directed by Maori within a mainstream healthcare facility, providing safe clinical and cultural care, underpinned by the philosophies of whanaungatanga (relationship associations), manakitanga (caring and commitment), and arohatanga (love and respect).  

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