Cultural Safety and Culturally Congruent Care: A Comparative Analysis of Ramsden’s and Leininger’s Educational Projects for Practice
Anne Coup, RGON, Adv.Dip Nsg., B.A. (Auckland), Dip. Grad. (Otago), Currently completing thesis for MPhil, Nursing Studies (Massey) Lecturer, Nursing and Midwifery Dept., Otago Polytechnic
Reference: Coup, A. (1996). Cultural Safety and Culturally Congruent Care: A Comparative Analysis of Ramsden’s and Leininger’s Educational Projects for Practice. Nursing Praxis in New Zealand, 11(1), 4-11.
The importance of cultural factors in influencing health status, and health and illness behaviour has been well documented (e.g. Bazley, 1985; Leininger, 1991; Pomare & deBoer, 1988). Madeleine Leininger (1970) first articulated the importance of understanding cultural factors for nursing practice. Since then she and her graduate students have conducted numerous qualitative studies investigating care similarities and differences between cultures. From her findings she has developed a theory of Culture Care, Diversity and Universality which has been empirically tested (e.g. Finn, 1994; Good, 1992; Huttlinger & Tanner, 1994; Spangler, 1992). As well, Madeleine Leininger has developed the field of transcultural nursing – a formal area of study and practice which aims to teach both undergraduate and graduate nurses how to provide what she terms “culturally congruent care”.