Leininger’s Critique Response to Coup’s Article on Cultural Safety (Ramsden) and Culturally Congruent Care (Leininger) for Practice
Madeleine Leininger, PhD, LHD, CTN, RN, FAAN
Reference: Leininger, M. (1997). Leininger’s Critique Response to Coup’s Article on Cultural Safety (Ramsden) and Culturally Congruent Care (Leininger) for Practice Aotearoa. Nursing Praxis in New Zealand, 12(1), 17-23.
It was encouraging that Coup recognised some of my distinct contributions to nursing and health care with my theory of Culture Care and the establishment of transcultural nursing as a formal area of study and practice along with efforts to transform nursing education and practice with transculturally based nursing knowledge and skills. Unfortunately some of my most substantive and recent publications were missing such as the Second Edition of Transcultural Nursing: Concepts, Theories, Research, and Practice (1995) to help Coup and other Praxis readers understand the theory of Culture Care, the importance of the ethnonursing research methods, and how transcultural nursing is taught and practiced in undergraduate and graduate programs by nurses prepared in transcultural nursing. Such omissions and the lack of full knowledge of the theory, method, and research outcomes greatly limited Coup and Ramsden from conducting a scholarly comparative analysis of Leininger’s work. This critique will focus mainly on Coup’s March 1996 article published in Nursing Praxis in New Zealand which should be of help to readers and authors who use and critique my work.