The experience of facilitating debriefing after simulation: A qualitative study
He wheako mō te kōrero wewete i muri i te whakataruna: He rangahau whakaahua kounga
Rachel Macdiarmid DHSc, RN, Senior Lecturer, School of Clinical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand
Stephen Neville PhD, RN, Head of School, School of Clinical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand
Shelaine Zambas DHSc, RN, Senior Lecturer, School of Clinical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand
Reference: Macdiarmid, R., Neville, S., & Zambas, S. (2020). The experience of facilitating debriefing after simulation: A qualitative study. Nursing Praxis in Aotearoa New Zealand, 36(3), 51-60. https://doi.org/10.36951/27034542.2020.015
Research suggests that debriefing is the most important component of simulation. Debriefing is the time when participants think over and reflect on what happened during the simulated experience. The aim of this research was to gain insight into the experience of facilitating debriefing following a simulated experience in a tertiary health care setting. This qualitative study was guided by phenomenology, as developed by Heidegger and Gadamer, and included 10 health professionals (nurses, doctors, and a midwife) debriefing simulation experiences. Data were collected through individual interviews and analysed through iterative re-writing and the generation of three stories as getting started; supporting the debrief to unfold; and knowing how to end. This study affirmed the role of the facilitator in debriefing following simulated experiences. The facilitator’s role includes leading the dialogue beyond “talk” and into “learning”. The art of asking a question, working with silence, and enabling learning all require skill. Through experience, facilitators learn to respond to whatever unfolds in the session. This study contributed detail of what facilitators do to draw out thinking, which confirmed their essential role. Facilitators cannot prepare a script for debriefing beforehand but must rely on their debriefing know-how to respond in each debrief. The facilitator’s know-how is therefore central to debriefing following simulated experiences.
Ngā ariā matua
E ai ki ngā rangahau ko te kōrero wewete i muri te wae matua o te mahi whakataruna. Ko te kōrero wewete te wā e whakaaroaro ai e huritao ai ki ngā mahi o te wheako whakataruna. Te whāinga ia o tēnei rangahau he whai kia kitea ngā wheako o te whakahaere kōrero wewete i muri i tētahi wheako whakataruna i tētahi horopaki hauora reanga tuatoru. I aratakina te rangahau kounga e te putaahua (phenomenology), i whakawhanaketia ai e Heidegger rāua ko Gadamer, ā, 10 ngā mātanga hauora 10 (he tapuhi, he tākuta, he kaiwhakawhānau) o roto, e wewete ana i ngā wheako whakataruna. I kohia ngā raraunga mā ētahi uiuinga takitahi, i tātaritia hoki mā te tuhi hurihanga, me te huanga mai o ētahi kōrero paki e toru hei mea kia tika te tīmata; te tautoko kia hora mārire mai te wetekanga; me te mōhio pū ki te whakamutu i te wā tika. I whakanui tēnei rangahau i te wāhi ki te kaiwhakahaere wewete i muri i ngā wheako whakataruna. Ētahi āhuatanga o te tūranga o te kaiwhakahaere he arataki i te kōrerorero ki tua o te “kōrero noa” kia puta mai te “akoranga”. Me mōhio ki te tuku pātai, te mahi i roto i te ngū, te whakaoho hoki i te akoranga, arā, he pūkenga nui anō o ēnei mea katoa. Rā roto i ngā wheako, i ako te hunga whakahaere ki te urupare ki ngā mea katoa ka puta i roto i te wā. I whakaūngia i roto i tēnei rangahau ngā mahi whāiti e tika ana mā te kaiwhakahaere kia puea ake ngā whakaaro, i whakapūmautia ai tō rātou tūranga matua i roto i ngā mahi. E kore e taea e ngā kaiwhakahaere te hoahoa tuhinga mō tētahi wetekanga i mua, engari me whakawhirinaki ki tō rātou mōhiotanga wewete kia urupare ki ia wetekanga. He tūranga taketake hoki tō te kaiwewete mōhio muri i ngā wheako whakataruna.
Keywords / Ngā kupu matua
clinical learning / te akoranga taurima tūroro; debriefing / te kōrero wewete; health professional / te kaimahi hauora ngaio; qualitative research / te rangahau whakaahua kounga; simulation-based education / akoranga ao whakataruna