Men entering nursing: Has anything changed?
Ko te tāne ka urutomo ki te mahi tapuhi: He aha ngā mea hou?
Isabel Jamieson, RN, MN, CertAT, PhD, Principal Lecturer, Ara Institute of Canterbury/Senior Lecturer, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, NZ
Thomas Harding, RN, PhD, Senior Lecturer, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, NZ
John Withington, RN, PGDip, Lecturer, Ara Institute of Canterbury, Christchurch, NZ
Dianne Hudson, RN, DTLT, BN, MHSc, Lecturer, Ara Institute of Canterbury, Christchurch, NZ
Reference: Jamieson, I., Harding, T., Withington, J., & Hudson, D. (2019). Men entering nursing: Has anything changed? Nursing Praxis in New Zealand, 35(2), 18-29. https://doi.org/10.36951/NgPxNZ.2019.007
Since the 1950s there has been an increased acceptance of women’s entry into occupations long associated with men, but a corresponding movement of men into ‘female’ occupations is not evident. Two persistent gender-based discourses impacting on nursing have been discussed at length in the literature as obstacles to men undertaking nursing: its construction as women’s work and the stereotyping of men who are nurses as homosexual. The aim of this study was to describe male nursing students’ understanding of the gender stereotypes associated with nursing. A qualitative descriptive methodology was used where semi-structured interviews with eight men enrolled in a graduate entry nursing programme were undertaken and thematic analysis conducted. Key findings reveal that participants identified two predominant gender scripts: nursing as women’s work and the stereotyping of men who are nurses as homosexual. Two associated themes also evident were being disquieted by stereotypes that negatively characterise their career choice and resistance through non-subscription to the script of normative masculinity. Individual men demonstrate ambivalence or resistance to hegemonic masculinity and actively engage in ‘undoing’ gender. However, the same barriers to men’s engagement in nursing, identified and discussed since the 1960s, remain potent. Research into and evaluation of societal change strategies are now required if the barriers imposed by gender stereotyping of nursing are to be dismantled.
Ngā ariā matua
Mai i ngā tau 1950 kua piki ake te whakaaetanga ki te tomo a te wahine ki ngā momo tūranga mahi kua roa e kīa ana ‘mā te tāne’, engari, kāore anō kia pērā te urutomo mai a te tāne ki ngā momo tūranga mahi e kīa ana ‘mā te wahine’. E rua ngā kōrero hāngai ki te ira e pā ana ki te mahi tapuhi i roto i ngā tuhinga hei āraitanga mō te whakaurunga a te tāne ki te mahi tapuhi: Tuatahi, ko te whakaaro he mahi te tapuhi mā te wahine, tuarua ko te pōhēhē o ētahi he takatāpui te hunga tāne whakauru ki te mahi tapuhi. Te whāinga o tēnei tirohanga he tuhi kōrero mō te māramatanga o ngā ākonga tapuhi ki ngā whakaaro kiritoka ā-ira e piri ana ki te mahi tapuhi. I whakamahia he tikanga whakaahua kounga, i kawea ai ētahi uiuinga āhua ōkawa ki ētahi tāne tokowaru kua whakauru ki tētahi kaupapa akoranga tapuhi taumata paetahi, ā, i āta tātaritia hoki ngā whakautu. I roto i ngā kitenga, e rua ngā kitenga momo ira matua nā ngā kaiwhakauru i waitohu: tuatahi ko te whakaaro he mahi te tapuhi mā te wahine, tuarua ko te pōhēhē o ētahi he takatāpui te hunga tāne tapuhi. E rua atu anō ngā tāhuhu, ko te noho pōraruraru o ēnei tāngata, nā ngā whakaaro kiritoka e turaki hē ana i tō rātou whiringa huarahi i te ao mahi, me te whakaahua a ēnei tāngata i tō rātou korenga e whakaae, mā te huri tuarā ki ngā pēhitanga kia piri ki te huarahi o te nuinga o ngāi tāne. I whakaahua ngā tāne takitahi i te rangirua, i te huringa tuarā rānei ki te pēhitanga ‘kia tāne anake’ me tā rātou mahi nui kia ‘whawhai ki ngā whakaaro’ o te ira tāne, o te ira wahine. Ahakoa rā, he mana nui tōna tō ngā maioro ki te whakaurunga o te tāne ki te ao tapuhi, i waitohutia, i matapakitia mai i te ngahuru tau 1960. Me haere he rangahau, he aromātai hoki ināianei, ki ngā rautaki huri i te ao, ki te hiahia te ao kia turakina ngā maioro ki te porowhiu whakaaro kiritoka pōhēhē mō te ira tangata i te ao tapuhi.
Keywords / Ngā kupu matua
nurse education / te akoranga tapuhi; gender / ira tāne, ia wahine; stereotypes / ngā whakaaro kiritoka; qualitative research / te rangahau kounga; men in nursing/ te tāne i te mahi tapuhi